Shutter Speed Explained
Shutter speed is pretty straightforward the speed you set will determine how long the sensor is exposed to light for. The faster the shutter speed the less light and the slower (longer it is open for) then the more light the sensor will receive.
DSLR cameras can range from 30 seconds to 1/8000 of a second but this will vary between cameras but most cameras will go up to at least 1/1000 of a second. There are three types of shutters, first up you have the leaf shutter. These open and close like two leafs parting this exposes the sensor then closes again stopping the light. Leaf shutters can have very high flash sync speeds.
Global shutters, which exposes the whole scene to the sensor at once, tend to be found in video cameras and not DLSR’s it is most likely you have a rolling shutter. Electronic shutters activate 1 row of pixels at a time on a sensor. These are usually found on mirrorless cameras such as the Sony A7II
Curtain style shutters like the ones found in DSLR’s do the same thing but one curtain fires first followed by a second one this again only subjects the sensor to a small amount of light at any one time. The problem you have with this is that fast-moving horizontal objects can appear distorted because not all of the sensor is exposed at once. This isn’t something to worry about too much but keep it in mind. Maths wise shutter speed is pretty easy to deal with if you simply double the amount of time your shutter is open then you will double the amount of light that will hit the sensor creating a brighter image.
Stopping shakey or blurred shots
Fast moving subjects will need a fast shutter speed to make sure that everything is sharp and doesn’t have motion blur. To make things blurred, for example, a waterfall then you will need to slow your shutter speed down to 3 seconds to create that nice misty effect. The shutter speed could be slower depending on the speed of the water. The problem with that is because you are letting in more light then overexposing your photo is very easy.To stop this you will need to use something called an ND filter. These are filters that fit on the front of your lens and are basically sunglasses for your sensor.
Stopping movement blur when you are hand holding your camera will count on two things, how fast your subject is moving and your focal length. We will start with the focal length, the loose rule of thumb for focal length is your shutter speed should be double so if you had a 50mm lens on then you will need at least 1/100 sec to help prevent camera shake.